The Confusion around Reiju

(Edited by Maril Blanchard)

Reiju and Reiki Attunements can be so confusing!

 

Within the modern Reiki community, there appears to be a lot of confusion about reiju and attunement. In this article we present a perspective that will, hopefully, clear up some of this confusion. We invite your comments.

Foundations of ReijuThe Confusion around Reiju

In Japan, the attunement is called a reiju, which can be translated as "spiritual blessing or offering." But, what does that actually mean?

First of all, as the translation indicates, a reiju is spiritual in nature; it's not physical. Traditional teachings indicate that when Mikao Usui initially offered a reiju to his students, there was no physical ritual. Instead, he was 'just sitting' opposite the student. But, this wasn’t just any sitting — Mikao Usui was a living embodiment of the Great Bright Light, as symbolized in the Level III symbol and mantra of DKM.

DKM represents non-attachment, including non-attachment to our ego. It denotes a state of being without any sense of a 'you' or an 'I' or even of 'doing.' It epitomizes a space of open possibility.

Mikao Usui was 'just sitting' as the Great Bright Light, encompassing the entire cosmos and being that space of open possibility. In that space, Usui could offer the reiju as a healing, a blessing, an initiation, or all at the same time. In that space, the student could receive whatever he or she needed, at that moment in time. There was no need for ritual; only the ability of the person 'giving' the reiju to be the Great Bright Light.

In Japanese, the essence of this state of being is called nyu gag a nyu, or mind-to-mind transmission.

Unfortunately, some of Usui's Shinpiden students had difficulty with being in this egoless state. Therefore, he borrowed a physical ritual designed to help his students remember that they are the Great Bright Light. This borrowed ritual didn't have any symbols or mantras, only specific hand positions performed on the person receiving the reiju.

The symbols and mantras were added later, likely by Chujiro Hayashi, who studied with Usui during the last 10 months of Usui's life. Hayashi's intention, like that of Mikao Usui, was to help students remember that they are the Great Bright Light.

He viewed the symbols and mantras as spiritual keys, meant to unlock that which is hidden within. He taught the initial symbols and mantras as part of Okuden — the Japanese word for inner or hidden teachings. As students practiced Okuden, including the symbols and mantras, they would begin to realize that which is hidden within, their true nature, which is Reiki or spiritual energy. As their Okuden practice deepened, students would then be introduced to Shinpiden — the Japanese word for mystery teaching — and the DKM symbol and mantra. As students practiced Shinpiden, they moved from an intellectual understanding of DKM toward an embodiment of the Great Bright Light.

Throughout Okuden and Shinpiden (and beyond), students received and offered reiju —as a healing, a blessing, an initiation, or all at the same time.

The System of Reiki Moves to the West

When Hayashi taught the system of Reiki to Mrs. Takata, she referred to the reiju as an initiation, as evidenced in her personal diary. She saw the initiation as an opportunity for the student to have an initial experience that he or she is Reiki. As Mrs Takata states in her dairy, "Let the true energy come out from within. It lies in the bottom of the stomach about two inches below the naval."

There is no indication that Mrs. Takata ever referred to the reiju as an attunement. However, after she died, some of her students — now teachers in their own right — started calling the initiation an attunement. And, this is the term now in use in many countries and among many teachers.

Unfortunately, calling the reiju an attunement gives rise to many misconceptions. One such misconception is that Reiki is external to the recipient. For example, some Reiki teachers say, “Without an attunement, you cannot channel Reiki.” Others say, "An attunement is the transfer of the ability to channel Reiki, passed from a teacher to a student."

Such statements contradict the teachings of Mikao Usui, Chujiro Hayashi, and Mrs. Takata — for each, in their own way, taught that Reiki (spiritual energy) is our true nature, hidden within us, waiting to be re-discovered. It doesn't need to be channeled — which the Merriam-Webster dictionary defines as express, move, or carry — because it's already channeling within, through, and around us. For the same reason, it also doesn't need to be transferred from a teacher to a student. If either statement were actually true, then anyone who wasn't attuned would not be alive. Obviously, that is not the case!

One of the precepts in the system of Reiki is 'be honest.' As Reiki teachers, we need to look at the reiju in an honest way, a way that opens us to being a full embodiment of the Great Bright Light. If we really think that the reiju is just a physical ritual, then we are not being honest — anyone can learn to do the physical ritual, but does this mean that they can offer a reiju, a spiritual blessing, in a state of being the Great Bright Light? If so, we should teach everyone in the world how to do the ritual, then we can all perform it on each other and within no time the world will be a better place.

Unfortunately, few modern Reiki teachers are able to facilitate the egoless, mind-to-mind transmission that is the foundation of reiju. Many might even find it hard to understand the concepts, let alone be the Great Bright Light. It is extremely difficult to completely step out of the way — our ego has such a strong grip on everything. This is why the system of Reiki is a spiritual and lifelong practice.

Returning to the Source

To really understand the concept of attunement, we need to not only look at the cultural context within which Mikao Usui practiced reiju — that is, as a spiritual blessing or offering as the Great Bright Light — but also the practice tools that are taught within the system of Reiki. The attunement/initiation/reiju also needs to be viewed from the perspective of the precepts and the Shinpiden symbol and mantra.

The precepts are:

Do not Anger
Do not Worry
Be Humble
Be Honest
Show Compassion to Yourself and Others

As practitioners of the system of Reiki, we meditate on and attempt to live in accordance with these precepts. At the Shinpiden level, we add to our practice the DKM (Great Bright Light) symbol and mantra, which is 'just' a consolidated form of the precepts. It is only when we are a living embodiment of the DKM, the Great Bright Light — as was Mikao Usui — that we can truly not be angry, not worry, be humble, honest, and compassionate.

When a teacher offers an attunement or reiju —with or without the symbols and mantras, with or without a physical ritual — he or she needs to do so from a state of true compassion. And, in a truthful state of compassion, we see that we are all One, so there is nothing to give or to receive.

"We say that the giver, receiver, and the gift itself are empty and peaceful. This is our standard for dana paramita [the very best way of giving] the giver is empty of self, the receiver is empty of self, and the thing given is empty of self. Simply selfless. Without this wisdom, giving is an ego trip. How can we cross over to a life where benefiting others is more important than our own self-interests? Unsurpassable giving is realizing that there is no one who possesses and that there is nothing to possess. When we realize this, giving and receiving is done without any thought of loss or gain."

~Sensei Egyoku

To sum it all up, a reiju (spiritual blessing) is offered so that students can have an initial experience of their own spiritual nature/energy (Reiki). They then learn various tools — like the precepts, mantras, symbols, hands-on healing, and meditation — to deepen their experience of their true nature. Since they had an initial experience that during reiju, they know what to look for and how it feels. The most important element in the attunement/reiju process is the state of mind of the teacher, not the ritual. Different students of Mikao Usui might have had different rituals, but their state of mind was the same, the Great Bright Light.


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  1. by Frans Stiene on August 17, 2012 at 08:23 pm

    Hi All,

    I just re-read this quote from Thich Nhat Hanh again and feel it is very relevant to this article.

    “The authentic mind seal is transmitted in every moment. If the disciple deeply observes the way the master walks, eats, speaks, and performs each act of daily life transmission can take place continuously. The ceremony of transmission is just a formality. True transmission is available to each disciple in every moment. This is real Zen, not just in books but in the living reality of relationship and daily life.
    The master does not transmit his own awakening to the disciple as such. He only helps her realize the awakening already present within her. The expression to “transmit the mind seal” is essential symbolic.”

    From Zen Keys by Thich Nhat Hanh

  2. by Lisa Deutsch Harrigan on August 17, 2012 at 09:40 pm

    I guess I was lucky. I am always running into the Great White Light. I forget and need to be reminded, and lose it, then find it again. One of my “lead me by the nose” people was my Reiki Master, who when she started my grounding included “Feel the White Light surround you and fill you”. And it came back again.
    But like this article reminded me, I still need to remind myself - as a a human, trained in Reiki and my religion (Jewish),  it is always there. I just need to keep reminding myself with all the tools I have, to open up to it and let it fill me again.
    One of my lessons for this lifetime.
    Thanks again for a wonderful article.

  3. by Elly on August 17, 2012 at 10:45 pm

    Hi Frans, and thanks for a marvelous article! I think this may be your best yet! I have long felt that all the ceremonial hocus-pocus and running around that Western Reiki Masters are taught to do during attunements is a distraction to them, and thus a dilution to the transmission, the opposite of what Usui Founder intended. It’s not that the teachers performing the attunements aren’t approaching them with pure intent—-I’m sure they are—-and perhaps all the steps involved help some of them focus. But while they’re dancing around, they could instead be beaming the Great Bright Light directly mind to mind and heart to heart, in the most concentrated form and for the most concentrated duration. I also think that the greatest loss to Western Reiki besides the centrality of the precepts to Reiki practice is the repetition of Reiju. My understanding is that an essential part of every one of Usui Founder’s Reiki gatherings was the giving and receiving of Reiju; it was like our Reiki shares, where we give and receive hands-on Reiki. Most Western traditions believe that one attunement per level is enough for a lifetime. I would so love to see Reiju return as an essential part of every Reiki share!

  4. by Colin Powell on August 18, 2012 at 12:32 am

    Great article, Frans!

    I have a couple of questions, though :-)

    I agree that “in a truthful state of compassion, we see that we are all One, so there is nothing to give or to receive.” If that is the case, what is being “transmitted” in nyu gag a nyu ( mind-to-mind transmission)?

    Would you say that it is not only the state of mind that the Reiki teacher is in but also the state of mind the student is in that allows the veil to be lifted so that the Great Bright Light within can be experienced?

    You said that: “Unfortunately, few modern Reiki teachers are able to facilitate the egoless, mind-to-mind transmission that is the foundation of reiju.”
    There are literally millions of Reiki practitioners and thousands of Reiki teachers - and almost as many different Reiki styles, with their individual Reiju/initiation methods. Since there are so many Reiki practitioners, who are all presumably able to practice Reiki after having received some form of Reiju and see wonderful results, does that mean that all of the Reiki Teacher’s who offered Reiju using their particular method must have been in the appropriate state of mind?

    “Feel the White Light surround you and fill you”. - love that, Lisa! That could be a Reiju method itself if the teacher and student are in the appropriate state of mind! :-)

    I agree, Elly, that regular Reiju is wonderful. I wouldn’t like to comment on Usui Sensei’s gatherings because I have no information about them but Reiju Kai (like Reiki shares where students could practice on each other, ask questions and receive Reiju from as many Reiju-sha who were present) was certainly an essential experience for Chujiro Hayashi’s students and their students in Japan. One of my Reiki teacher’s mother and other relations attended and organised many such Reiju-kai in several towns and cities in Japan between the late 1920s and 1950s. I also offer Reiju at my Reiki shares.

  5. by Colin Powell on August 18, 2012 at 12:58 am

    Oops! When I said “One of my Reiki teacher’s mother” I of course meant to say “the mother of one of my Reiki teachers” - he only had one mother! :-)

  6. by Elly on August 18, 2012 at 01:44 am

    Ha! Good one, Colin! I trust we all could understand your meaning. My own grammar is never as precise as I’d like! I’m thrilled to learn that Hayashi-sensei, whom I always think of as “my personal physician,” encouraged this kind of ongoing Reiju among his students. Glad you’re carrying the torch!

  7. by Frans Stiene on August 18, 2012 at 07:21 am

    Hi Elly,
    I agree that a lot of times the running around is a distraction, plus I think many teachers think it is the ritual which does the trick, this is why they run around.

    But in fact it is the mind which is the most important element, we can also see this in the precepts.

    The more we realize that it is the mind the less we need to run around.

    We have weekly practice evenings and every week we perform a reiju during the 30 minute meditation we do.

    I also see a lot that the teacher does a reiju/attunement/initiation which might last 2 minutes and then he/she says, okay done. But if you let teh student sit in that space he/she can go deeper and deeper.

  8. by Frans Stiene on August 18, 2012 at 07:54 am

    Hi Colin,

    I think you are getting too caught up in the wording/words. You ask:

    “I agree that “in a truthful state of compassion, we see that we are all One, so there is nothing to give or to receive.” If that is the case, what is being “transmitted” in nyu gag a nyu ( mind-to-mind transmission)?”

    There is nothing being transmitted in the mind to mind transmission, this is the beauty of it. But many students might not be at the level to understand this so we need to talk from their perspective. Hope that makes sense. We need words to describe the undescribable and this is where many people get confused. The most important element is to have the direct experience and then we know as a student that during the transmission there is nothing to receive, no receiver and no giver.

    You asked: Would you say that it is not only the state of mind that the Reiki teacher is in but also the state of mind the student is in that allows the veil to be lifted so that the Great Bright Light within can be experienced?

    Yes, from that perspective it completely depends on the students own readiness, which needs to come from their state of mind. This can only come through personal practice, applying the meditation taught within the system of Reiki. This is why reiju was offered on an ongoing basis, the student does some training and receives a reiju, goes home and practice, comes back a month or 2 months later and “receives” another reiju, is their state of mind the same as the previous time? So now, because of their own practice they can take it deeper if they want to.

    You also asked this:
    You said that: “Unfortunately, few modern Reiki teachers are able to facilitate the egoless, mind-to-mind transmission that is the foundation of reiju.”
    There are literally millions of Reiki practitioners and thousands of Reiki teachers - and almost as many different Reiki styles, with their individual Reiju/initiation methods. Since there are so many Reiki practitioners, who are all presumably able to practice Reiki after having received some form of Reiju and see wonderful results, does that mean that all of the Reiki Teacher’s who offered Reiju using their particular method must have been in the appropriate state of mind?”

    For me the key word in your question is this: “who are all presumably able to practice Reiki”. I guess “practice Reiki” means hands on healing? We do not need a reiju.attunement/initiation to be able to do hands on healing, yes it might help but it is not necessary. Hands on healing is our birth right. To really understand what an attunement/initiation/reiju is we need to go back to the word Reiju, which means spiritual blessing or offering. It doesn’t say anything about hands on healing, if it was solely about hands on healing, Usui-san might have used a word which would have translated as “Hands on Healing activator” :-)
    But besides the joke, reiju is spiritual in nature and has to do with our and the students’ state of mind, e.g the precepts. I think in the modern system of Reiki we think it is all about hands on healing but traditionally it was about the precepts. As Reiki practitioners we need to embody the state of mind of the precepts only then the world will be a different place, this, for me, is the deepest form of healing.
    So I do not think that most teachers were/are in the right state of mind, including me. I think it is very difficult to be in the state of mind of the precepts/great bright light. We talk about completely letting go of the ego, the “I” - not that easy. This is why, for me, the system of Reiki is a life long practice.

    I see it this way; the more I grow as a teacher, the more the student grows - this is why we the teacher and the student need to stay in contact. If I take my practice deeper and I see a student again - who also has been practicing - then we both can take the reiju deeper than before. Hope this makes sense.

  9. by Frans Stiene on August 18, 2012 at 07:58 am

    Hi All,
    Here are two quotes from Lama Thubten Yeshe about initiation:

    “Initiation does not mean that a guru gives you some incredible power. You already have the qualities of profound wisdom and great bliss within you…”

    “Even though a hundred people might participate in an initiation, they do not all have the same experience. Each person experiences the initiation according to their own level of skill and personal development. Actually receiving the initiation depends on the person’s mind, not on their bodily participation. As I mentioned, it depends on their ability to let go of their limited self-image.”

  10. by Colin Powell on August 18, 2012 at 09:04 am

    Good answer, Frans! :-)
    Maybe it is better to say “a union of minds” where it is recognised that one mind is simply the continuation of the other? I think that words are important (although, as you say, difficult to choose) in the beginning, before we come to just’ know’, through personal experience.

    If most teachers are not in the right state of mind when offering Reiju then most of us have never received a Reiju as it was originally meant to be. I agree that Reiki is a lifelong practice (and not just hands on healing :-) ) and as we continue to practice, our awareness of Reiki grows as does our ability to experience albeit brief instances of what may be the right state of mind for Reiju and deep healing.

    Most people start out with hands on healing as the main focus of their practice but, particularly if they also have a personal practice, their awareness deepens, their light grows brighter and they become more aware of the interconnectivity and Unity. However, this process may be easier if they have guidance and a desire to progress in that direction. Some Reiki practitioners seem to be happy with simple hands-on healing and that is fine too! :-).

    I really like this: “I see it this way; the more I grow as a teacher, the more the student grows - this is why we the teacher and the student need to stay in contact. If I take my practice deeper and I see a student again - who also has been practicing - then we both can take the reiju deeper than before. ” That is also a good reason for attending regular Reiju kai or Reiki shares and re-sitting Reiki seminars with your teacher. :-)

  11. by Frans Stiene on August 18, 2012 at 11:20 am

    Hi Colin,

    Yes “an union of minds’” would have been a good idea, yet many students who feel very confused and come for teachings might not understand this, they might say: don’t connect to my mind, it is all muddled up or confused. How often do we not hear from people, I can’t be at this Reiki gathering or with this person because my energy is too open. Confusion is everywhere. This is why in essence we need to talk to each individual at their level, use different words and gestures.

    I have received reiju/initiations from what I think are real masters (they didn’t practice the system of Reiki) and it was such a different experience, so much deeper, expanded, direct, spiritual in nature etc.
    This is why as teachers we need to keep digging deeper into our true self, always exploring always practicing, it never stops. The more we grow as teacher the deeper we can guide our students. The more the students grow the deeper they can guide the teacher :-)

    What is interesting, is that I see more and more people coming to the system of Reiki for self healing, as a spiritual practice. At each class I always ask people why they are there and what they want to get out of it, many people now state that they want to heal themselves in a spiritual sense, so I think there is a shift happening.

    I agree we need to have the desire to do this and also the right guidance.

    Some people say that the reiju was done repeatedly because it didn’t last forever? But that is not the case at all, it was done because each time the teacher would see the student again and perform a reiju they both could take it a step deeper as they both had been practicing at home.

    A wonderful journey…

  12. by Frans Stiene on August 18, 2012 at 11:54 am

    If you are interested in initiations from a more Japanese traditional view point then there is a wonderful chapter “Shingon Initiation” in “Shingon Japanese Esoteric Buddhism” by Taiko Yamasaki.

  13. by Elly on August 18, 2012 at 11:59 am

    Hi Frans! Gee, why am I not surprised that you do Reiju at your weekly practice sessions?! People like you and Colin are bringing Reiki back to Usui Founder’s intention, and making that intention not just available to a small secret society of initiates but to anyone who seeks, not a secret society, but the true secret at the heart of who we are and what we can be. Thank you for making this your life’s work! Gassho, Elly

  14. by Patsy Fine on August 18, 2012 at 04:37 pm

    Thanks for keeping it Real!!! I also do Reiju at our monthly Reiki Circles where everyone Reiki trained or not share in the sacred experience of spiritual energy healing work.  Everyone receives and gives reiju.  I love your work. Just got the Reiki Relaxation cd - love it. Look forward to seeing you in SF next April.  Abundant Blessings

  15. by Frans Stiene on August 18, 2012 at 05:08 pm

    Hi Patsy,
    Isn’t it wonderful to share reiju.
    Looking forward to seeing you next April in SF.
    Love
    Frans

  16. by Steve on August 18, 2012 at 06:16 pm

    Hi Frans

    As always a great article….one of your best so far!
    But just sitting and “being” when giving Reiju is so much more than some can understand especially those entrenched in the Western way

    I too am always digging as you put so well We never stop learning do we..

    At the regular shares we hold Reiju is always given and we even carry them out at healing festivals we attend so that some that do not know Reiki or Reiju can feel….all leave with a smile and a lighter step

    Now searching for the initiation book!

    Hugs

    Steve

  17. by Louise Cardon on August 18, 2012 at 07:14 pm

    Hi Guys, there is great discussion here in the UK about ‘reju’ and ‘attunement’ being something different. The point being that they are not the same thing and as Frans says, the attunement gives you ‘access’ to the system of Reiki ie hands on healing. I don’t teach this, but many students do expect to receive something. I am always amazed at the different reactions in the room to both an attunment ritual and a simple reju. I agree that we simply don’t have the words to explain most of this and personal experience is the only way to go!

  18. by Bronwen Stiene on August 18, 2012 at 07:35 pm

    Hi Lousie,

    I think you have misunderstood what I am trying to say.  I am not saying that the attunement gives you access to hands on healing or that reiju and attunement are two different things.

    Hands on healing is our birthright - we can all do this, and, of course, a reiju/attunement/initiation supports this practice. Reiju/attunement/initiation needs to be spiritual in nature, this is why it is traditionally called a reiju (spiritual blessing).

    Many people are confused as to whether the reiju and the attunement are different, BUT if we have the right state of mind then reiju, attunement and initiation are one and the same.  These are Just different words and sometimes different rituals - but that is all.

    Remember we are all Reiki/true self already. All the reiju/attunement/initiation does (if done from the right state of mind) is to create a possibility for the student to realize their true self/reiki.

    Hope this helps.

  19. by Candice on August 18, 2012 at 11:57 pm

    This is a fantastic article and the comments are great too! State of mind is key to any of the techniques within the system. Thank you for presenting Reiju so clearly. Just as Usui took deep practices and made them accessible to lay people, you help give better understanding to his teachings for modern life. I think if we lived during Usui’s time we would have a much easier time understanding the depth of his teachings. Educating our selves about Japanese Ways and history can help drive this home more. Thank you for making the teachings accessible to so many in a way that modern lay people can understand.

  20. by Kris Azzarello on August 19, 2012 at 01:11 am

    Hi, Frans,

    I love the summing up; REIJU is offered so that the person can have an experience of their own spiritual nature/energy.  Nothing new or other is given, just a confirmation of what / who they already are.  Having this experience makes us more conscious and aware of our state and being.  And consciousness is NOT the same as obsession (What’s my state?  How’s my energy?)  It is that subtle knowing that is present always, even in the “mundane” activities of daily life.  Reiju has intent which then shows the person they can live with intent and live consciously and aware.
    Thanks so much for sharing this!

    Kris

  21. by Frans Stiene on August 19, 2012 at 09:13 am

    Hi Candice,
    I agree that to understand the traditional system of Reiki as Usui-san intended we need to look at traditional Japanese Ways and the history of these Ways. Then we can start to see the real Japanese system of Reiki.

    And as you say the mind is the essence of all the techniques taught within the system of Reiki, in fact the mind is the most important element, without the right state of mind we only practice the techniques on a superficial level. This is why we need to always dig deeper, keep meditating.

  22. by Frans Stiene on August 19, 2012 at 09:19 am

    Hi Kris,
    So true too, consciousness is not the same as obsession, I think these obsessions are often hindering the process of the reiju/attunement/initiation.

    The reiju/attunement/initiation needs to be spiritual in nature, many people say that we give people Reiki during an reiju/attunement/initiation and that they do not have it before this process.

    But for me Reiki = spiritual energy = true self = the precepts, and we all know that after one, two or even 10 reiju/attunements/initiations we still get angry, worry, and are not humble, honest or compassionate, (the precepts) so by seeing this we realize that it is not just the reiju/attunement/initiation, it is the whole system which needs to be practice for the rest of our lives to really get to the bottom of it.

  23. by julie on August 19, 2012 at 09:46 am

    Thanks Frans for this article.  My comment about Reiju’s is that every time I go onto IHR’s site and read an article it feels like I receive a Reiju from you.  As I read I can hear your voice as if it you are right here with me.  I feel very connected and up lifted when I leave the computer.  So thank you both for the energy you put into your work and what you develop for your students.

  24. by Elly on August 19, 2012 at 10:37 pm

    Well, Frans, now you’ve really done it. I have never encountered such a clear summation of what Reiki is as you’ve presented in a single sentence in your response to Kris (“But for me…”). This simply has to resonate for those of us who follow the Way. You should make it a post of its own so that people who might not read comments won’t miss it!

  25. by Margaret Bates on August 20, 2012 at 12:51 am

    Hi Fran’s
    I have been enjoying greatly all the posts in respond to this question of Reiju and attunements. I have also just finished your wonderful on line ” teaching Reiki” course. I very much like to use the Reiju as explained on pg 28 of your Shinpedin manual during Reiki share evenings or sometimes before a hands on healing session. At these times of use I feel very connected to the person as a mutual blessing and it is explained to someone new that we are entering into a sharing time of blessing and connectedness.. The symbols are not used in this case other than within ourselves to connect us to the DKM , but we do use the sun mudra.  But an attunement, as described on page 29 and 30 is slightly different. We are definitely using the symbols and the mantras, drawing them over the crown and the hands. These attunements during a class have a specific meaning and are performed a set number of times during each class.
    I do know of some people who use the full attunement , with symbols and mantras over crown and hands, as would be in a class as a blessing , so this is where my confusion rises.
    I love entering into a time of oneness with someone while doing the “simple” Reiju
    So I guess I see a Reiju as being the simpler shorter blessing without the symbols and the attunement being a more significant blessing performed with all the symbols and mantras.

    I am so grateful to have this opportunity to share concerns as we travel together on this journey.
    Margaret

  26. by Frans Stiene on August 20, 2012 at 06:29 am

    Hi Elly,
    Glad you like it :-) Just put that statement on our facebook page.

  27. by Barenne Clara on August 20, 2012 at 06:45 am

    Thank you so much Frans for sharing with us the essence of Reiki and the true spirit of Ususi sensei.
    Do you intend to teach some Shugendo in Europe and maybe in Paris?

  28. by Frans Stiene on August 20, 2012 at 06:50 am

    Hi Margaret,

    I see it like this:
    Traditionally there was a reiju/attunement/initiation without the symbols/mantras. Later on, probably by Hayashi, symbols and mantras were added to the reiju/attunement/initiation. This was done to help the teacher to go into the great bright light state of mind/oneness/precepts.
    The symbols/mantras were not for the student directly, but for the teacher, they helped the teacher to become a vehicle for the spiritual blessing.

    Unfortunately in the modern teachings of the system of Reiki the symbols/mantras are used very externally and often seen in the modern reiju/attunement/initiation as being given to a student. But how can we give something to somebody what they have already?

    The symbols/mantras are keys to unlock what is hidden within us, hence the name Okuden, inner/hidden teachings, and it is only you who can unlock what is hidden inside of you, the teacher can be a facilitator but we still have to do it ourselves.

    This is why there is in essence, (if our mind is in the right state) no difference between the reiju/attunement/initiation without or with the symbols and mantras.

    Hope this all makes sense.

    I think it is confusing as when the system of Reiki first came to the west there was only the reiju/attunement/initiation with the symbols and mantras but later on we learned that traditionally in Japan a different method was employed which didn’t use the symbols and mantras. And it is here that the confusion started to kick in.

    So I personally do not see it that one is simple and the other more significant as a blessing. I have seen very profound shifts happening during the reiju/attunement/initiation without the symbols/mantras but also during the one with the symbols/mantras. :-)
    Most important is that as a teacher we need to make sure we have the right state of mind no matter which ritual we practice, the rest is up to the student.

  29. by Frans Stiene on August 20, 2012 at 06:55 am

    Hi Barenne,
    I don’t see myself yet as a Shugendo teacher, who knows maybe in the future. :-)

    However we are working on teaching another Shinpiden Reiki Level III course in Paris next year, 2013.
    The host will be: Kathryn Hudson
    http://today.kathrynhudson.fr/

    So stay in touch and we might meet each other next year.

  30. by Heiné on August 22, 2012 at 02:08 am

    WOW a stunning article! Thank you Frans for sharing this.

  31. by dan on August 22, 2012 at 03:35 am

    What is the difference between reiju and attunement?

    Attunements
    A Reiki lineage is the direct line of information that the teacher has been invested with, it is exact, it denotes the specific rituals and practices relevant to that lineage that have been given in person.
    A Reiki attunement/initiation is a very exact process. It is a direct transmission from teacher to pupil; the pupil is finely tuned to allow Reiki energy to flow freely.
    Contained within that attunement/initiation is not only the spiritual essence and information of that teacher but all the teachers before him/her within that directly transmitted lineage.

    Reiju
    Traditionally in Japan reiju did not ‘make’ one into a practitioner of any level. Reiju is simply a Buddhist blessing. Reiki has its origins in Esoteric Buddhism and Reiju is for those students who have already received Reiki attunements/empowerments, it is a blessing and a support for the student’s personal growth.

    Reiki has a number of practices that when brought together teach one how to use Reiki for spiritual development and healing. Several mainstream Reiki styles are currently using Reiju to attune.
    Any master, teacher or student who has received any level of Reiki by reiju ‘attunement’ has not received Reiki. They have received something other than Reiki. Be aware reiju does not empower/attune anybody to any level of Reiki. Whatever the lineage, reiju cannot attune/initiate people to Reiki.
    Hiroshi Doe’s Reiju

    The reiju that Hiroshi Doi described is not what was used or taught by Usui Sensei or the Usui Reiki Gakkai. This reiju method was developed by Doi with the help of his students, emulating the reiju given by Koyama to Doi. Doi was not allowed to see the reiju process when he received it so Doi’s method was developed solely on the sensations he felt in receiving Gakkai reiju.

    Doi has also explained that the Gakkai reiju process has been changed several times over the years.

  32. by Frans Stiene on August 22, 2012 at 10:07 am

    Hi Dan,

    I think we need to be careful how we come to our understandings of esoteric teachings such as the system of Reiki.

    Traditionally in Japan, reiju/attunement/initiation did not have any symbols and mantras in it. It was all about a specific state of mind.  We can see this in the precepts and also in the DKM (the level III symbol and mantra which stands for non-duality).

    So, when we look at the traditional way of reiju/attunement/initiation we need to look at it from the perspective of the precepts, non-duality and the word Reiki itself.

    The word Reiki means spiritual energy, which, from a Japanese viewpoint, is our true self. This means that we all have Reiki already - we might not have recognized this, but through practicing the system of Reiki we slowly begin to recognize that we are Reiki already. When we have a direct experience from this approach then we realize that your statement: “Any master, teacher or student who has received any level of Reiki by reiju ‘attunement’ has not received Reiki” no longer makes sense.

    Your understanding also relies on the concept that you “make” someone into a Reiki teacher or practitioner. Is it compassionate (precepts) to say that, as teachers, we “make” you into a a level I, II or III practitioner or teacher/master and before we “make” you into this you do not have Reiki? I find the statement more ego based then compassion based. Plus, if we can “make” someone into a Reiki teacher/master, what does that mean? Does that mean that they suddenly have no more anger, worry, are humble, honest and compassionate? No. If this were the case we would quickly “make” everybody in the whole world a Reiki practitioner and there would be peace. But we all know this is not how it works.

    This is why, to gain a true understanding for ourselves of the system of Reiki, it is so important to have a direct experience of these kinds of practices. The answers lie not in the words of a teacher or in a book. It is in the direct experience of the reiju/attunement/initiation that we begin to understand the truth; that it is all in the mind, not in the symbols and mantras, or even the ritual itself.

    As you might also be aware, when the system of Reiki came to the west the attunement was repeatedly changed and there is no one exact attunement process and hasn’t been for many, many years.

    You say that the attunement contains not only the spiritual essence and information of that teacher but all the teachers before him/her within that directly transmitted lineage. Then, after we have received such an attunement, we know everything the teacher knows - all his/her spiritual information which he/she has accumulated over the years, plus all dating back to Usui-san!? This is highly unlikely. Usui-san was an enlightened person. So, to check if we have all of his spiritual information we can ask ourselves some questions: does the attunement enlighten us to have no more anger, worry, to be humble, honest and compassionate? No, of course not. Then we did not receive the spiritual essence and information all the way back to Usui-san. If we had, then we would all have no more anger, worry, be humble, honest and compassionate after the attunement.

    When we realize, as teachers, that the real reiju/attunement/initiation is in our minds, then we can use any kind of ritual with or without symbols, it doesn’t matter.  However, we need to make sure that before we can do this that our mind is in the right state, and this is something of utmost importance. Which brings us back to our personal practice of the system of Reiki.

  33. by Rebecca on August 22, 2012 at 04:36 pm

    Don’t have much time to write as I’m running out of the house to work.

    For me the attunement ritual uses it’s elements to help the teacher do/be the attunement. The symbols, ritual etc… are something for a beginner teacher to hand onto in an energetic way. For a more expereinced tacher they can be a little cloncky as there is less room for instinct/feeling the way/intuitive work.

    The Reiju has less ritual and therefore more space for a teacher to work as they get deeper into the procatice/energy of Reiki. From a practice point of view, Reiju feels more elegant to me as it has less ritual to get in the way.

    It’s very much a learning thing. Most teachers need the attunement ritual to help them perform the attunement. This can be the case for years for each prson as they practice as a teacher.

    The Reiju is somsthing that we move into as we progress. The less ritual in this practice starts to give us more room to really be the Reiju. It will not be the same with each student and there is space within the ritual for us to vary what we do energetically as we work in that space along with the student.

    Not sure if this is making any sense - sorry, I’m in a bit of a hurry :-)

  34. by Frans Stiene on August 22, 2012 at 04:40 pm

    Hi Rebecca,
    I agree with your statements. It is so true that it is a way of learning, going deeper and deeper, this is why the direct experience is so important, plus the deeper we go the more the direct experience will change too.

    It has taken me years and year plus lots of daily personal practice to come to some sort of understanding and then I feel I am still scratching the surface.

    What an amazing journey!

  35. by Alice Risemberg ~ Reiki Pulse on August 23, 2012 at 12:37 am

    What a great thread of comments. Thank you, everyone.

    Back a ways, Frans said: “...if we have the right state of mind then reiju, attunement and initiation are one and the same.  These are Just different words and sometimes different rituals - but that is all.”

    Ultimately, this seems to be true not only of the different reiju/attunement/initiation rituals, but also of every practice: palm healing, joshin kokyu ho, chanting, sitting in “no form” meditation, reciting or meditating on the precepts, etc. Even perhaps yoga, qigong, praying in church, etc. Also doing dishes mindfully, making dinner, eating.

    The rituals, as Frans has said before, are tools. The state of being we are trying to remember fully is always the same.

    The longer I practice, the longer all of these FEEL the same. So, while I might use a simpler ritual generally for reiju/initiation/attunement now, when I go “back” to the more involved attunement with symbols, mantras, touching, etc., it is no longer a distraction. It’s just a different dance with which to express my nature as fully as possible. I just use a different ritual tool. And sometimes the other person in the ritual responds better to one dance/tool than the other.

    A Reiki palm healing session with a client is a different ritual tool that feels the same as Reiju, as well.

    All different choreography but still dance.

    Warmly,
    Alice

  36. by Susan Phillips on August 23, 2012 at 12:55 am

    Hi.  I’ve enjoyed your article along with all the following comments.  I thought you might like to read a piece from an interview with Robert Jefford (the UK’s longest practising Reiki practitioner who started Eastern Reiki training in Japan in 1954):
    “What is the difference between reiju and attunement?
    Attunements
    A Reiki lineage is the direct line of information that the teacher has been invested with, it is exact, it denotes the specific rituals and practices relevant to that lineage that have been given in person.
    A Reiki attunement/initiation is a very exact process. It is a direct transmission from teacher to pupil; the pupil is finely tuned to allow Reiki energy to flow freely.
    Contained within that attunement/initiation is not only the spiritual essence and information of that teacher but all the teachers before him/her within that directly transmitted lineage.

    Reiju
    Traditionally in Japan reiju did not ‘make’ one into a practitioner of any level. Reiju is simply a Buddhist blessing. Reiki has its origins in Esoteric Buddhism and Reiju is for those students who have already received Reiki attunements/empowerments, it is a blessing and a support for the student’s personal growth.

    Reiki has a number of practices that when brought together teach one how to use Reiki for spiritual development and healing. Several mainstream Reiki styles are currently using Reiju to attune.
    Any master, teacher or student who has received any level of Reiki by reiju ‘attunement’ has not received Reiki. They have received something other than Reiki. Be aware reiju does not empower/attune anybody to any level of Reiki. Whatever the lineage, reiju cannot attune/initiate people to Reiki.
    Hiroshi Doe’s Reiju

    The reiju that Hiroshi Doi described is not what was used or taught by Usui Sensei or the Usui Reiki Gakkai. This reiju method was developed by Doi with the help of his students, emulating the reiju given by Koyama to Doi. Doi was not allowed to see the reiju process when he received it so Doi’s method was developed solely on the sensations he felt in receiving Gakkai reiju.

    Doi has also explained that the Gakkai reiju process has been changed several times over the years.”

    Is it any wonder there is a lot of confusion about this topic!

  37. by Alice Risemberg ~ Reiki Pulse on August 23, 2012 at 03:06 am

    Susan Phillips, thank you for sourcing the information that Dan left as a comment (verbatim) earlier in the discussion. I was curious where his information was coming from. Does Robert Jefford have this information published on a website?

    Thanks again.

  38. by Alice Risemberg ~ Reiki Pulse on August 23, 2012 at 03:08 am

    Ah, never mind, through the magic of Google, I found the interview link:

    http://www.reikicouncil.org.uk/AboutReiki/ReikiInterviews/AnInterviewWithRobertJefford/tabid/114/Default.aspx

  39. by Frans Stiene on August 23, 2012 at 07:48 am

    Hi Alice,
    So true, we need to come to an understanding that whatever we do, walk, talk, hands on healing, meditation is in essence a reiju/attunement/initiation. This is not that easy to understand and we need to have a strict daily practice to come to a direct experience of this.

    Thanks for sharing.

  40. by Frans Stiene on August 23, 2012 at 08:01 am

    Hi Susan,

    Someone else put that already in the comments without saying where he got it from. I personally do not agree with Robert’s statements. If you look at my reply nr. 32. of the comments you can see why.

    When looked at from a traditional Japanese perspective Roberts statements about the attunement and reiju do not make any sense.

    I was in Japan in July and the Japanese Shingon Ajari (Ajari means eminent monk of the Shingon or Tendai sect) I worked with had received a reiju/attunement/initiation with symbol/s from a Japanese teacher, he asked me about it, as he felt it didn’t make any sense, so I showed him a reiju/attunement/initiation without the symbols. When I showed this specific reiju/attunement/initiation without the symbols he said, ahh that makes so much more sense, now I understand. To really understand what the system of Reiki is all about we need to go back to the roots, Japanese spiritual practices and teachings.

    We need to investigate our selves plus dig deep inside our own Reiki/true self to come to certain conclusion, only then do we start to see the system of Reiki from a direct experience.

    As Alice said, on a deeper level everything is reiju/attunement/initiation!

    Hope this all helps.

  41. by Susan Phillips on August 23, 2012 at 10:03 am

    Thank you for your response, and no doubt the debate will continue for many years to come.  I have read so many different explanations on this subject and what was probably a simple act seems to have become more and more complicated.  I have come to the conclusion that for lots of people anything goes. The work, study, time and research you have invested in Reiki is admirable, and may your journey continue to the betterment of us all.  Best wishes, Susan

  42. by Frans Stiene on August 23, 2012 at 10:27 am

    Hi Susan,
    Yes the debate will probably never stops :-)

    I agree it with you that it used to be a simple act, but many modern teachers have put it into a box.

    For me reiju/attunement/initiation was seen as life in its most profound way, but because of all the limitations modern society has put on it, we feel and get restricted. This restriction will stop us from re-discovering spiritual freedom.

    The most important element for me is that the students start to feel less angry, worried, more humble, honest and compassionate after the reiju/attunement/initiation and starts to implement the practices taught within the system of Reiki.

    The teacher can only point into the right direction the student has to discover it for hi or herself.

  43. by kathi richards on August 25, 2012 at 09:24 am

    Awesome article Frans. Great discussion too. Nothing else to say, just Awesome.

  44. by Yolanda on August 28, 2012 at 05:37 am

    Ilove this quote”...Unsurpassable giving is realizing that there is no one who possesses and that there is nothing to possess. When we realize this, giving and receiving is done without any thought of loss or gain.”

    It explains giving as unconditional.  In our society, we tend to attach conditons to the act of giving, making it materialistic.  When giving is an open offering from the heart.  It is such a wonderful idea to strive and embody.

  45. by Frans Stiene on August 28, 2012 at 09:04 am

    Hi Yolanda,

    I think that “giving unconditional” is the best way, no matter if we perform a reiju/attunement/initiation or a hands on healing session, in fact “giving unconditional” needs to be integrated in everything we do in life.

    However I believe that many people do not understand “giving unconditional” and this is why there are so many statements being made that we “give” Reiki to someone, instead of just “be Reiki”, or that during a hands on healing session we start to judge what we feel, some schools even created different levels of Hibiki, (echo, resonance) and act then accordingly but for me this is not “giving unconditionally”.  Also and echo is like a rainbow, there is no beginning and end and we can not hold onto it.

    The more we stick things in a box the less open we are the less we “give unconditionally”.

  46. by Yolanda on August 29, 2012 at 12:45 am

    Frans,

    Thank you for your enlighten response.  It is giving more to think about and incorporate in my everyday Reiki life.

  47. by Frans Stiene on August 29, 2012 at 09:53 am

    “Normally, everyone thinks that you can attain the art if you simply learn the form, that there is some kind of secret that will enable you to do it. But that is not the way. It’s impossible without training.”
    Yukiyoshi Sagawa (1902–1998)

  48. by Elly on August 29, 2012 at 09:57 pm

    Frans, what an excellent quote! Thanks so much for sharing it with us. As you said earlier, anyone can master a form, but it takes guidance and introspection to master the spirit that animates the form and gives it meaning. Jesus said much the same thing when he noted that the letter of the law (empty form) was deadening, but the spirit of the law (living, vibrant form) gives life.

  49. by Candice on August 30, 2012 at 01:48 am

    Excellent quote Frans! (#47-Yukiyoshi Sagawa) I love it! We need/must have the experience our self to really understand any of this. Even when we do have an experience, it’s just a small, small piece of the whole. There are, as you say so many more layers to be revealed. Only practice and training can reveal those layers. This discussion is great!

  50. by Frans Stiene on August 30, 2012 at 08:39 am

    Glad you like that quote, I think we can learn so much from the real masters of old.

  51. by Yahia on January 17, 2013 at 12:32 am

    The term and techniques of Reiju came to the fore in Reiki in the west through Hiroshi Doi sensei and we are fortunate to have first hand evidence of what Doi meant by it. Hiroshi Doi had first studied Reiki in Japan with Mieko Mitsui whose lineage was from Barbara Ray (a student of Hawayo Takata). Mr Doi’s training included levels of what he calls ‘traditional’  Reiki with the Gakkai. In 2000, his book ‘Iyashino Gendai Reiki Ho’ was translated into English.

    On page 77 he states that ‘Your pathway for Reiki is opened by attunement and you become able to perform healing to yourself and others”.
    He also states that four attunements are given. The clear implication of this is that Denju corresponds to an attunement process and for him Reiju is a different process. The four Attunements are the same number as used in the standard Western Attunements.

    On page 134 Doi sensei state “The ceremony that opens up channel of Reiki flow called ‘Denju’. In Western Reiki it’s called ‘Attunement’ or ‘Initiation’.”

    This is made clearer on page 135 where he states that ” The way to build strong Reiki is to receive Reiju. Reiju is a form and developing method for intuitive power, which is given by the teacher….. If you receive many Reiju, Reiki inside of your body gets stronger”. These Reiju, he states, on the same page, are given at the regular training seminars i.e. regular meetings where people come together to train during the regular Hatsurei-ho meditation.

    Rick Rivard, a Canadian Reiki teacher, who was involved in having Doi’s book translated and printed in Canada, states in his ‘Reiju workshop’ manual of 2001: “Doi-sensei only uses his Reiju as a Shoden level of empowerment (booster) at each of his Reiki gatherings, and sometimes between Attunements in Shoden class, so he did not teach us how he would use it if in Okuden or Shinpiden. (although he does not use it that way.”

    This implies that there is a difference between Attunements and Reiju and their individual purposes for the person who first introduced these processes to the West.

    It is interesting to note that Doi is very honest with what he shared and taught and what has become the ‘Reiju’ process in the west is actually guesswork.

    Rick Rivard reports in the same Reiju workshop manual “The Reiju that Doi Sensei described is not exactly what was used or taught by Usui Sensei or Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai. This Reiju method was developed by Doi Sensei with the help of his students, emulating the Reiju given by Koyama Sensei to Doi Sensei. Doi Sensei was not allowed to see the Reiju process when he received one.”

    We therefore have first and second hand evidence that Reiju is not an attunement method.

    Warmly,
    Yahia

  52. by Frans Stiene on January 17, 2013 at 07:54 am

    Hi Yahia,
    Thank you for your feedback.

    There are other teachers in Japan besides Hiroshi Doi, who teach and discuss Reiju.

    Denju is used in many Japanese teachings and traditionally means: handing down of the teachings. In some modern practices Denju has become translated as initiation.

    When we first went to Japan in 2001, we met with 2 Japanese Reiki teachers, one who was also a member of the Gakkai. The explained that there were 3 different styles of Reiju, one modern one, invented by Hayashi (the one with the symbols/mantras), one were you just use a ritual (no symbols/mantras) and then they said a secret one :-). The secret one is the one were there is no physical movement at all, mind to mind.

    When I was in Japan in 2003 and met with Hiroshi Doi, I asked him again about his reiju: His answer was that he was shown this reiju by a son of a Gakkai teacher.

    We can also discover these 3 different ways of reiju within ourselves if we practice long enough.

    The most important element is our own personal practice the deeper we go the more we start to discover about reiju/attunement/initiation. We also need to see the reiju/attunement/initiation from the perspective of the precepts and the DKM (symbol/mantra) which stands for non-duality, by doing this you will see what this article talks about and what real reiju/attunement/initiation is.

    Good luck on your journey!

  53. by Yahia on January 03, 2014 at 10:56 pm

    Hi Frans,

    Thanks for your wishes….
    I am aware that any other Reiki Teachers discussing in Japan about Reiju…most probably Hyakuten Inamoto and Tadao Yamaguchi. But all of these kinds of Reiju are created in the last 1 years. There is no evidence that all those existed before. By evidence I understood documents or proofs.
    Three different style of Reiju ?? Come on ...be serious about that.
    I am sure that you are aware about the Chinese world of martial arts where they have three kinds of transmissions : external - from outside (usually contain the physical form only without any explanation), internal - from inside the teachings (the meaning of the form , sometimes, symbols, mantras, visualizations) and secret (this is the transmission mind to mind or heart to heart). So , for me is obvious from where “Reiki Masters from Japan” borrowed these explanations for foreigners.
    I also noticed that Mr.Doi never said that he is a member of Gakkai. He just indicated that he can be..but til now no evidence was released about this aspect. So the quality of his affimations are doubtful. If you remebered well he said that his Reiju is not what was used or taught by Usui Sensei or Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai. This Reiju method was developed by Doi with the help of his students. This statement appeared in his own Reiju manual which he gave to his students.
    Now….Mr. Doi changed his mind again and says that his Reiju was shown by “a son of Gakkai teacher”. Come on….be serious. I suppose that you are aware that in japan only few people knows the Gakkai members. There is so much secret about them and sometime even their family did not know that they are “Gakkai members”. That means that son of the Gakkai member does not know that his father is a member. And is he does not know how can he know the secret Reiju. Only a Western mind can believe such an incredible story.
    I saw that you visited the Japan…and I am wandering if you believe this new story. Because if you believe this story I am sure that you have some proofs. maybe a tape recording, or video recording or just some old papers or photos. Maybe you do not have. But maybe you can disclose the name of the son of the Gakkai member or a modality to check you affirmations. Otherwise is just another Reiki story without any evidence. Another unproved myth.

  54. by Frans Stiene on January 04, 2014 at 05:34 am

    Hi Yahia,

    The only real written document about Mikao Usui that anybody can access is the memorial stone.

    I have been training with a Shugendo Priest and a Shingon Pries who also used to be a Tendai Priest in Japan, and you will find traces of the Reiju within these traditions.

    People ask about written documents which is great but the most important element is the direct experience. We need to directly experience how we can work with the Reiju and the other tools within the system of Reiki through direct practice.

    This means first meditating on the symbols and mantras for a prolonged period of time, then you start to understand the essence of Reiju.

    The real essence of Reiju i sin our mind, and as we all know energy follows the mind.

  55. by Mircea on April 27, 2014 at 10:15 pm

    “Hayashi taught the system of Reiki to Mrs. Takata, she referred to the reiju as an initiation, as evidenced in her personal diary. She saw the initiation as an opportunity for the student to have an initial experience that he or she is Reiki.”
    Mrs. Takata never reffered as reiju as an initiation. Actually , there are no evidence of the word reiju as you suggested. If you find such as evidence please show us. Otherwise is just another supposition of you.

    “There is no indication that Mrs. Takata ever referred to the reiju as an attunement. However, after she died, some of her students — now teachers in their own right — started calling the initiation an attunement. And, this is the term now in use in many countries and among many teachers.”

    Well, Mrs. Takata use the word initiation first. In her diary,but probably you missed that..
    And I’ll quote here : “Initiation is a sacred ceremony and the contact is made. With the first contact or initiation the hands radiate vibrations when applied to the ailing part ”  Is clear like a crystal that her Reiki Masters uses the same word, did not it ?

    Best regard,
    Mircea

  56. by Frans Stiene on April 28, 2014 at 02:20 am

    Hi Mircea,

    You might want to re-read what we wrote, think you are miss reading the article.

    In Japan they only use one word for the initiation/attunement process in the system of Reiki, and this is Reiju.

    As far as I know Hayashi did not speak English so he would have used the word Reiju when teaching Mrs Takata. Instead of using the word Reiju Mrs Takata translated it as initiation.

    In the article we are saying that Mrs Takata used the word initiation and that after her death some of her students started to use the word attunement instead of initiation.

    Hope this helps.

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